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新托福阅读真题及答案解析 新托福真题

2017年新托福阅读真题及答案解析

  凡事欲其成功,必要付出代价:奋斗。以下是小编为大家搜整理的2017年新托福阅读真题及答案解析,希望能给大家带来帮助!更多精彩内容请及时关注我们应届毕业生考试网!

2017年新托福阅读真题及答案解析

  Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilledartisans. As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their trades to apprenticesand journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homes part-time, making finishedarticles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. After 1815 this older form ofmanufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended by unskilled orsemiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability ofcapital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.

  The creation of a labor force that was accustomed to working in factories did not occur easily.Before the rise of the factory, artisans had worked within the home. Apprentices wereconsidered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching theirapprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moralbehavior. Journeymen knew that if they perfected their skill, they could become respectedmaster artisans with their own shops. Also, skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at asteady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time.

  The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant asthose done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates ofproductivity. The new methods of doing business involved a new and stricter sense of time.Factory life necessitated a more regimented schedule, where work began at the sound of a belland workers kept machines going at a constant pace. At the same time, workers were requiredto discard old habits, for industrialism demanded a worker who was alert, dependable, andself-disciplined. Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and, since work was specialized,disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not only produced a fundamentalchange in the way work was organized; it transformed the very nature of work.

  The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudes easily. Thefactory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finally quitcomplained revealingly about "obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though we are somany living machines." With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standing in thecommunity. Unlike artisan workshops in which apprentices worked closely with the masterssupervising them, factories sharply separated workers from management. Few workers rosethrough the ranks to supervisory positions, and even fewer could achieve the artisan's dreamof setting up one's own business. Even well-paid workers sensed their decline in status.

  In this newly emerging economic order, workers sometimes organized to protect their rightsand traditional ways of life. Craft workers such as carpenters, printers, and tailors formedunions, and in 1834 individual unions came together in the National Trades' Union. The labormovement gathered some momentum in the decade before the Panic of 1837, but in thedepression that followed, labor's strength collapsed. During hard times, few workers werewilling to strike* or engage in collective action. And skilled craft workers, who spearheadedthe union movement, did not feel a particularly strong bond with semiskilled factory workersand unskilled laborers. More than a decade of agitation did finally bring a workday shortenedto 10 hours to most industries by the 185O’s, and the courts also recognized workers' right tostrike, but these gains had little immediate impact.

  Workers were united in resenting the industrial system and their loss of status, but they weredivided by ethnic and racial antagonisms, gender, conflicting religious perspectives,occupational differences, political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics. For them, thefactory and industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of their loss ofindependence and a measure of control over their lives. As United States society becamemore specialized and differentiated, greater extremes of wealth began to appear. And as thenew markets created fortunes for the few, the factory system lowered the wages of workers bydividing labor into smaller, less skilled tasks.

  Paragraph 1: Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes orshops by skilled artisans. As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their tradesto apprentices and journeymen. In addition, women often worked in their homes part-time,making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. After 1815 thisolder form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended byunskilled or semiskilled laborers. Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and theavailability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.

  1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about articles manufactured before1815?

  ○They were primarily produced by women.

  ○They were generally produced in shops rather than in homes.

  ○They were produced with more concern for quality than for speed of production.

  ○They were produced mostly in large cities with extensive transportation networks.

  Paragraph 2: The creation of a labor force that was accustomed to working in factories did notoccur easily. Before the rise of the factory, artisans had worked within the home. Apprenticeswere considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching theirapprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moralbehavior. Journeymen knew that if they perfected their skill, they could become respectedmaster artisans with their own shops. Also, skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at asteady pace, but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time.

  2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlightedsentence in the passage?

  Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essentialinformation.

  ○Masters demanded moral behavior from apprentices but often treated them irresponsibly.

  ○The responsibilities of the master to the apprentice went beyond the teaching of a trade.

  ○Masters preferred to maintain the trade within the family by supervising and educating theyounger family members.

  ○Masters who trained members of their own family as apprentices demanded excellence fromthem.

  Paragraph 3: The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished orelegant as those done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure toincrease rates of productivity. The new methods of doing business involved a new and strictersense of time. Factory life necessitated a more regimented schedule, where work began at thesound of a bell and workers kept machines going at a constant pace. At the same time,workers were required to discard old habits, for industrialism demanded a worker who wasalert, dependable, and self-disciplined. Absenteeism and lateness hurt productivity and,since work was specialized, disrupted the regular factory routine. Industrialization not onlyproduced a fundamental change in the way work was organized; it transformed the verynature of work.

  3. The word disrupted in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○Prolonged

  ○Established

  ○Followed

  ○Upset

  Paragraph 4: The first generation to experience these changes did not adopt the new attitudeseasily. The factory clock became the symbol of the new work rules. One mill worker who finallyquit complained revealingly about "obedience to the ding-dong of the bell-just as though weare so many living machines." With the loss of personal freedom also came the loss of standingin the community. Unlike artisan workshops in which apprentices worked closely with themasters supervising them, factories sharply separated workers from management. Fewworkers rose through the ranks to supervisory positions, and even fewer could achieve theartisan's dream of setting up one's own business. Even well-paid workers sensed their declinein status.

  4. In paragraph 4, the author includes the quotation from a mill worker in order to

  ○Support the idea that it was difficult for workers to adjust to working in factories

  ○To show that workers sometimes quit because of the loud noise made by factory machinery

  ○Argue that clocks did not have a useful function in factories

  ○Emphasize that factories were most successful when workers revealed their complaints

  5. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 4 as consequences of the new system forworkers EXCEPT a loss of

  ○Freedom

  ○Status in the community

  ○Opportunities for advancement

  ○Contact among workers who were not managers

  Paragraph 5: In this newly emerging economic order, workers sometimes organized toprotect their rights and traditional ways of life. Craft workers such as carpenters, printers,and tailors formed unions, and in 1834 individual unions came together in the National Trades'Union. The labor movement gathered some momentum in the decade before the Panic of1837, but in the depression that followed, labor's strength collapsed. During hard times, fewworkers were willing to strike* or engage in collective action. And skilled craft workers, whospearheaded the union movement, did not feel a particularly strong bond with semiskilledfactory workers and unskilled laborers. More than a decade of agitation did finally bring aworkday shortened to 10 hours to most industries by the 185O’s, and the courts alsorecognized workers' right to strike, but these gains had little immediate impact.

  6. The phrase gathered some momentum in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○Made progress

  ○Became active

  ○Caused changes

  ○Combined forces

  7. The word spearheaded in the passage is closest in meaning to

  ○Led

  ○Accepted

  ○Changed

  ○Resisted

  8. Which of the following statements about the labor movement of the 1800's is supported byparagraph 5?

  ○It was most successful during times of economic crisis.

  ○Its primary purpose was to benefit unskilled laborers.

  ○It was slow to improve conditions for workers.

  ○It helped workers of all skill levels form a strong bond with each other.

  Paragraph 6: Workers were united in resenting the industrial system and their loss of status,but they were divided by ethnic and racial antagonisms, gender, conflicting religiousperspectives, occupational differences, political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics.For them, the factory and industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of theirloss of independence and a measure of control over their lives. As United States societybecame more specialized and differentiated, greater extremes of wealth began to appear.And as the new markets created fortunes for the few, the factory system lowered the wages ofworkers by dividing labor into smaller, less skilled tasks.

  9. The author identifies political party loyalties, and disagreements over tactics as two of severalfactors that

  ○Encouraged workers to demand higher wages

  ○Created divisions among workers

  ○Caused work to become more specialized

  ○Increased workers' resentment of the industrial system

  10. The word them in the passage refers to

  ○Workers

  ○Political patty loyalties

  ○Disagreements over tactics

  ○Agents of opportunity

  Paragraph 1: Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes orshops by skilled artisans. ■As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of theirtrades to apprentices and journeymen. ■In addition, women often worked in their homespart-time, making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. ■After181 5 this older form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tendedby unskilled or semiskilled laborers. ■Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, andthe availability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.

  11. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added tothe passage.

  This new form of manufacturing depended on the movement of goods to distant locations anda centralized source of laborers.

  Where would the sentence best fit?

  12. Directions: Complete the table below by indicating which of the answer choices describecharacteristics of the period before 1815 and which describe characteristics of the 181 5-1 850 period. This question is worth 3 points.

  Before 1815 1815-1850

  ●

  ● ●

  ●

  ●

  Answer choices

  1.A united, highly successful labor movement took shape.

  2.Workers took pride in their workmanship.

  3.The income gap between the rich and the poor increased greatly.

  4.Transportation networks began to decline.

  5.Emphasis was placed on following schedules.

  6.Workers went through an extensive period of training.

  7.Few workers expected to own their own businesses.

  参考答案:

  1. ○3

  This is an Inference question asking for an inference that can be supported by the passage. Thecorrect answer is choice 3, "They were produced with more concern for quality than for speedof production." A number of statements throughout the passage support choice 3. Paragraph 1states that "Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shopsby skilled artisans . . . After 18 15 this older form of manufacturing began to give way tofactories with machinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers." Paragraph 2 states that"Before the rise of the factory . . . skilled artisans did not work by the clock, at a steady pace,but rather in bursts of intense labor alternating with more leisurely time." Paragraph 3 states, "The factory changed that. Goods produced by factories were not as finished or elegant asthose done by hand, and pride in craftsmanship gave way to the pressure to increase rates ofproductivity."

  Taken together, these three statements, about production rates, the rise of factories after 18 15, and the decline of craftsmanship after 18 15, support the inference that before 18 15, theemphasis had been on quality rather than on speed of production. Answer choices 1, 2, and 4are all contradicted by the passage.

  2. ○2

  This is a Sentence Simplification question. As with all of these items, a single sentence in thepassage is highlighted:

  Apprentices were considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only forteaching their apprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and forsupervising their moral behavior.

  The correct answer is choice 2. Choice 2 contains all of the essential information in thehighlighted sentence. The highlighted sentence explains why (part of the family) and how(education, moral behavior) a master's responsibility went beyond teaching a trade. Theessential information is the fact that the master's responsibility went beyond teaching a trade.Therefore, choice 2 contains all that is essential without changing the meaning of thehighlighted sentence.

  Choice 1 changes the meaning of the highlighted sentence b~ stating that masters oftentreated apprentices irresponsibly.

  Choice 3 contradicts the essential meaning of the highlighted sentence. The fact that"Apprentices were considered part of the family . . . " suggests that they were not actual familymembers.

  Choice 4, like choice 3, changes the meaning of the highlighted sentence by discussing familymembers as apprentices.

  3. ○4

  This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is disrupted. It is highlighted in thepassage. The correct answer is choice 4, "upset." The word "upset" here is used in the contextof "hurting productivity." When something is hurt or damaged, it is "upset."

  4. ○1

  This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information that can be found inparagraph 4. The correct answer is choice I, "support the idea that it was difficult for workers toadjust to working in factories." The paragraph begins by stating that workers did not adoptnew attitudes toward work easily and that the clock symbolized the new work rules. The authorprovides the quotation as evidence of that difficulty. There is no indication in the paragraphthat workers quit due to loud noise, so choice 2 is incorrect. Choice 3 (usefulness of clocks) iscontradicted by the paragraph. The factory clock was "useful," but workers hated it. Choice 4 (workers complaints as a cause of a factory's success) is not discussed in this paragraph.

  5. ○4

  This is a Negative Factual Information question asking for specific information that can befound in paragraph 4. Choice 4, "contact among workers who were not managers," is thecorrect answer. The paragraph explicitly contradicts this by stating that "factories sharplyseparated workers from management." The paragraph explicitly states that workers lostchoice I (freedom), choice 2 (status in the community), and choice 3 (opportunities foradvancement) in the new system, so those choices are all incorrect.

  6. ○1

  This is a Vocabulary question. The phrase being tested is "gathered some momentum." It ishighlighted in the passage. The correct answer is choice I, "made progress." To "gathermomentum" means to advance with increasing speed.

  7. ○1

  This is a Vocabulary question. The word being tested is spearheaded. It is highlighted in thepassage. The correct answer is choice 1, "led." The head of a spear leads the rest of the spear,so the crafts workers who "spearheaded" this movement led it.

  8. ○3

  This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information that can be found inparagraph 5. The correct answer is choice 3, "It was slow to improve conditions for workers."The paragraph states, "More than a decade of agitation did finally bring a workday shortenedto 10 hours to most industries by the 1850's, and the courts also recognized workers' right tostrike, but these gains had little immediate impact." This statement explicitly supportschoice 3. All three other choices are contradicted by the paragraph.

  9. ○2

  This is a Factual Information question asking for specific information about a particularphrase in the passage. The phrase in question is highlighted in the passage. The correctanswer is choice 2, "created divisions among workers." The paragraph states (emphasisadded): " . . . they (workers) were divided by ethnic and racial antagonisms, gender; conflictingreligious perspectives, occupational differences, political part loyalties, and disagreements overtactics." So "political party loyalties and disagreements over tactics'' are explicitly stared as twocauses of division among workers. The other choices are not stated and are incorrect.

  10. ○1

  This is a Reference question. The word being tested is them. It is highlighted in the passage.This is a simple pronoun-referent item. The word them in this sentence refers to those peopleto whom "the factory and industrialism were not agents of opportunity but reminders of theirloss of independence and a measure of control over their lives." Choice 1, "Workers," is theonly choice that refers to this type of person, so it is the correct answer.

  11. ○4

  This is an Insert Text question. You can see the four black squares in paragraph 1 thatrepresent the possible answer choices here.

  Before 1815 manufacturing in the United States had been done in homes or shops by skilledartisans. ■ As master craft workers, they imparted the knowledge of their trades toapprentices and journeymen. ■ In addition, women often worked in their homes part-time,making finished articles from raw material supplied by merchant capitalists. W After 1815 thisolder form of manufacturing began to give way to factories with machinery tended byunskilled or semiskilled laborers. ■ Cheap transportation networks, the rise of cities, and theavailability of capital and credit all stimulated the shift to factory production.

  The sentence provided, "This new form of manufacturing depended on the movement of goodsto distant locations and a centralized source of laborers," is best inserted at square 4. Theinserted sentence refers explicitly to "a new form of manufacturing." This "new form ofmanufacturing" is the one mentioned in the sentence preceding square 4, "factories withmachinery tended by unskilled or semiskilled laborers." The inserted sentence then explainsthat this new system depended on "the movement of goods to distant locations and acentralized source of laborers." The sentence that follows square 4 goes on to say, "Cheaptransportation networks, the rise of cities, and the availability of capital and credit allstimulated the shift to factory production." Thus the inserted sentence contains references toboth the sentence before square 4 and the sentence after square 4. This is not true of any ofthe other possible insert points, so square 4 is the correct answer.

  12. ○○Before 1815: 2 6 1815-1850: 3 5 7

  This is a Fill in a Table question. It is completed correctly below. The correct choices for the"Before 18 15" column are 2 and 6. Choices 3, 5, and 7 belong in the "1815-1 850" column.Choices 1 and 4 should not be used in either column.

  1815年以前,美国的制造业仅限于技术高超的工匠在自己家中和作坊中进行生产。作为师傅,工匠们将自己的手艺传授给徒弟和雇工。此外,妇女们在家中通常也会兼职从事一些生产活动,将商业资本家提供的原料制成成品。1815年以后,这种古老的生产模式逐渐消失,雇佣没有技术或半技术劳动者的机械化工厂开始兴起。廉价的交通运输网络、城市的兴起和资本借贷的可行性都促进了制造业从手工作坊到工厂生产的转变。

  想要获得适应在工厂工作中劳动力并不容易。在工厂兴起之前,工匠们只是呆家里进行生产,学徒们被视为家庭的一份子,师傅不光负责传授他们手艺,还要教育并监督他们的道德行为。雇工也明白如果他们的技艺足够精湛,就会成为受人尊敬的工匠师傅并拥有自己的作坊。同时,老练的工匠师傅们并不会按照时间计划安排生产,他们更习惯于时而闲暇,时而为了交单连夜赶工的生产方式。

  工厂化生产改变了这一切。工厂生产的商品没有手工制作的那么完美和精致,工厂要求工人们提高生产效率,导致工人们对自身技艺的自豪感逐渐弱化。工厂化生产方式要求工人们加强之前没有的时间观念,要求他们严格遵守工作时间的安排,铃声响起,工人们开始操控机器稳速运转。工人们在适应新的生产方式的同时,还要摒弃旧习惯。产业主义要求工人们具备机敏、可靠和自律的素质。既然工厂生产已经专业化,旷工与迟到就会降低劳动生产率,也会影响工厂的正常运转。工业化进程不仅促成了一种工作组织形式的根本改变,而且改变了工作的本质。

  适应新的生产方式对第一代经历产业革命的工人来说是一件非常困难的事情。工厂的时钟变成了新工作规定的象征。一名最终辞职的磨坊工人袒露真情地抱怨道:“让我们听从于叮叮当当的钟表,简直就把我们当成了活生生的机器。”工人们不仅丧失了人身自由,他们的社会地位也开始下降。和手工作坊里徒弟与监督他们的师傅之间的`密切工作关系不同,工厂将工人阶层与管理层明显地区分开。很少有工人能够僭越等级被提升到管理层的岗位,甚至基本没有人能够实现身为工匠时的梦想:经营自己的生意。那些待遇优厚的工人也开始感到他们的社会地位在下降。

  在这种新的经济秩序中,有时工人们会组织起来共同去保护他们的权利和传统的生活方式。比如木匠、印刷工人和裁缝等技术工人成立了联盟,并且,在1834年,各个独立的联盟组织成立了国家职工联盟。在1837年大恐慌前之的十年中,工人运动聚集了一些力量,不过随后而来的经济大萧条最终导致了工人力量的瓦解。那段时间,很少有人愿意罢工或者参与工人运动。身为工人运动先锋队的技术工匠们,并没有感到他们与半技术工人和非技术劳动者之间有显著密切的联系。直到19世纪50年代,超过十年的抗争最终使得大多数行业的工作时间缩短至10小时,法院也承认了工人罢工的权利,但这些权利的影响并没有立即显现。

  因为对工业体系和他们社会地位丧失的不满,工人们开始联合起来,但他们内部又被另外的因素分裂:民族和种族的敌对、性别差异、宗教信仰的冲突、职位差别、对不同政党的忠诚和工作策略的分歧等。对于工人们来说,工厂和工业化不代表着机遇,却时刻提醒着他们自身的丧失,并成为一种控制他们生活的手段。随着美国社会生产变得更加专业化和差异化,更大规模的极端财富开始出现。并且由于新兴市场只给少数人创造财富,工业体系不得不通过将劳动分割成更小的、技术含量更低的工作来降低工人们的工资。

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