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托福综合写作万能 综合作文模板

托福综合写作万能模板2016

  托福写作范文大家在考试前都会使用,那么2016年托福考试写作有哪些满分范文呢?下面跟百分网小编一起来学习一下!

托福综合写作万能模板2016

  第一部分:托福综合写作万能模板

  一、万能段子

  1. in the lecture, the professor made several points about …… .the professor argues that….. However, the reading passage contends that ……The professor's lecture casts doubt on the reading by using a number of point that are contrary to….

  2. the first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that….According to the professor…… …..differs from the reading in that the reading states…..The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading becasue….

  3. Another point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is….The professor claims that…..However, the reading states…..This point is contradicted by…..

  4. Finally,the professor stated that ,on the contrary of reading,……In other words,…..This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates,because…..

  反驳的单词:differ from ,disagree with, cast doubt on, conflict with, challenge

  5. In the lecture, the professor made several points about…The lecture argues that…..The points made by the professor agree with …..In fact, the examples used by the professor support…

  6. Furthermore, the professor bolsters the reading by stating that….

  The professor claims that…..This point agrees with the reading ,which contends that…..

  7.Finally, the professor states that ,in support of the reading,…..Specifically,…..This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicats because

  support的单词:enhance, uphold, corrobo,to back, justify, to substantiate, to advance

  反驳类

  The lecture is mainly discussing ______, ________ and ___________

  by _________, challenging what are stated in the reading passage that _________, _________ and _______.

  First of all, the speaker thinks that ___________. In contrast, the reading passage believes that _____________. So, the lecture totally disagree with the view made in the reading.

  Second, the speaker discusses ___________, Contradicting what is stated in the reading that _____________________.

  Finally, the speakers raises the issue that ___________. This point disagrees that ________________ demonstrated in the reading.

  So, the contents in the reading passage are totally jeopardized by the speaker and the speaker has totally different ideas on the topics made in the reading.

  (Refute)

  The lecture apparently refutes the points illustrated in the reading material. According to the professor, ________________.On the contrary, the reading contends an opposite stand that_____.

  The first point the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that___________, which differs from the statement in the reading that_____.

  Another evidence the speaker adopts to contradict the passage is________. However, the reading states that_________.

  In the conclusion, the point made in the lecture contrasts with what is presented in the reading. As the professor claims, ________whereas the reading material holds that________.

  (Support)

  The lecture apparently reinforces the points illustrated in the reading material. According to the professor, ________________. Meanwhile, the reading contends a similar stand that_____.

  The first point the professor uses to enhance the reading is that___________, which is just the same as the statement in the reading that_____.

  Another evidence the speaker adopts to bolster the passage is________. Likewise, the reading states that_________.

  In the conclusion, the point made in the lecture gives a boost to what is presented in the reading. As the professor claims, ________which is in accordance with the reading material holds that________.

  (Solution)

  主要用动词:supplement/complement/finalize

  第二部分:新托福综合写作模板|IBT综合写作模板

  In this listening material, the professor made several points about ____________.

  First of all / Moreover /

  Furthermore, the professor states /

  claims / argues / discusses /

  mentions / talks / indicates /

  says / contends / raises the issue /

  demonstrates / makes the point /

  holds / believes / shows that __________________, while the reading passage (反对)contradicts /

  departs from / refutes / disagrees with /

  opposes to the writer’s expectation /

  casts doubt on / presents a (totally) different idea /

  jeopardizes / differs from /

  on the contrary / makes the explanation seem less likely /

  in contrast /(支持)supports /

  illustrates / strengthens / agrees with /

  bolsters / (perfectly) reinforces /

  presents the same view that ____________.

  (各种表达)

  1. The lecturer says that the theory stated in the passage was very indifferent and somewhat inaccurate when compared to what happened for real.

  2. This directly contradicts what the passage indicates.

  3. This was another part where experience contradicted theory.

  4. This is entirely opposed to the writer’s expectation.

  5. This is where the speaker disagrees with the writer.

  (反对)

  Finally, the speakers raises the issue that ___________.

  This point disagrees that ________________ demonstrated in the reading. So, the contents in the reading passage are totally jeopardized by the speaker and the speaker has totally different ideas on the topics made in the reading.

  (支持)

  Finally, the professor states that, in support of the reading, ___________________.

  This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicates, because the passage says that ___________________________.

  In the lecture, the professor makes several points about… / the professor argues that… However, the reading passage contends that… The professor's lecture casts doubt on the reading by using a number of points that are contrary to…

  The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that… According to the professor, … differs from the reading in that the reading states… The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading because…

  Another point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is… The professor claims that… However, the reading states…..This point is contradicted by…

  Finally, the professor states that, on the contrary of reading, … In other words, … This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates, because…

  表反对:differ from / disagree with / cast doubt on / conflict with / challenge…

  In the lecture, the professor made several points about… The lecture argues that… The points made by the professor agree with… In fact, the examples used by the professor support…

  Furthermore, the professor bolsters the reading by stating that…

  The professor claims that… This point agrees with the reading, which contends that…

  Finally, the professor states that, in support of the reading, … Specifically, … This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicates because…

  表支持:enhance, uphold, corroborate, justify, substantiate, advance

  常用反对模板:

  In the lecture, the professor argues that ________, which differs from the main idea in the reading that ________. Doubt is casted on points in the reading by points in the lecture in aspects below.

  The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that _______, while the reading states ________. According to the lecture, the professor holds the view that ________.

  In addition, the professor claims that _____. However, the reading states______. This is another point.

  Finally, the professor states that, on the contrary of the reading, ____________. This directly contradicts what the reading indicates, namely _________.

  In conclusion, the points made in the lecture contrast with the reading _________, ______ and _____ demonstrate that ________ is in doubt.

  The lecture is mainly discussing ______, ________ and ___________ by _________, challenging what are stated in the reading passage that _________, __________ and _________.

  First of all, the speaker thinks that ___________. In contrast, the reading passage believes that _____________. So, the lecture totally disagrees with the view made in the reading.

  Second, the speaker discusses ___________, Contradicting what is stated in the reading that _____________________.

  Finally, the speakers raises the issue that ___________. This point disagrees that ________________ demonstrated in the reading.

  So, the contents in the reading passage are totally jeopardized by the speaker and the speaker has totally different ideas on the topics made in the reading.

  第三部分:案例解析

  一, 对立类 (就一个事物判断是与否agree or disagree)

  1,开头(给出A B C三个方案)

  A方案.(GM)

  With the development/introduction…, xxx, the xxx, are more and more +adj/ become adj increasingly. Xxx often face the dilemma of whether to vt …… with all aspects carefully considered, I believe that……/ I think to vt what would be a better choice.

托福综合写作万能模板2016

  B方案.

  在日常生活中,有很多值得我们去推敲判断的问题。就像我们看到上文作者提出的问题时,你会如何认为?(有的人认为……;也有的人认为……;)就我的而言,如下的考虑方向使得我认为……。

  In daily life /during our life, so many problems are worth considering carefully. As what has been come up with, when you face/when it comes to /there is a public debate today that/recently the problem has been brought into focus that… ……what is your choice and what is your opinion? Some hold the view that/some think………..while the others believe that………. However, with all aspects carefully considered, I believe that……………

  零碎的句子:A is a common way of ….., but is it a wise one? Some people hold the different view……

  C方案. (excellent) 如果发现可以用到反问排比就这样套句,前提是你的例子足够多,头脑风暴用的又好又快。

  Have you ever been to ……/have you ever + 过去分词/received/faced/experienced……

  If you had never had these experiences, you would never know/ feel/ learn/ realize/ understand……+how much fun/interesting/significant……xxx could bring you.

  2. 正文写作(body)

  接A方案 第一段

  开头中心句多用when vt+ed with xxx, ……(结果)/when taking xxx as ……+(结果)。这个结果就是本段的中心。(注意主题避免过细否则下面不好写)

  其他开头:

  Nowadays there is a growing awareness that…

  It is time we explore the truth of

  然后举例选不同的角色 例如equipped with xxx, a student may+vt/ a researcher may/ a teacher may

  中间穿插对比例如¸ which, if done with xxx(对立方)/which, if completed with xxx/if taken by, may well need/cost/waste much time/money/vigor/energy……多用比较级比较。When it comes to the condition that… xxx is more adj/better… than…

  The advantages for A outweigh than B when sth is concerned/when we consider …

  The advantages of A outweigh that of B when……………

  段尾重申主题。

  事实上是换个角度和说法,with the development of xxx,such as increase of………., the condition can be 被动/ more adj, whereas +原来条件的限制或对立面的不足。

  第二段

  ………….but that is only part of the reality, another equally important aspect is………

  A is but one of the many effects, another is…………

  Another advantage of choosing A is obviously seen when you…….

  Besides, other reasons are……..

  在段落中的承接:

  what is more, furthermore, besides, also……….

  For instance, such as, a good case in point is… a particular example for this is……….(这些大家都知道的,就不再赘述了,都有点恶心了,吼吼)

  更高级的承接:

  suppose/imagine that…(自定义类经常用到,大家可以体会)

  just imagine what it would be like if……

  it is reasonable to expect….

  it is not surprising that……

  no wonder that………

  更多的主题开头

  in fact, xxx is the reader’s major concern

  unlike xxx, xxx2(同谓语), aaa may vt

  以后几段少写一些

  最后一个例证段的开头:the last but not the least………..

  在段落中的自问自答可以有效地证明自己的观点。

  Why……?.The answer to this problem involves many factors. The first reason can be obviously seen

  Most people would agree that….. Some people may neglect that….. in fact……other suggest that……

  Part of explanation is ………

  过渡段(A类可以没有或很少如果你在每个段子中都又对比,B类(见下)=让步段)

  如果段与段都是同一个观点:to understand the truth of…., it is also important to see…..

  what is more, a study of …..will make this point clearer

  如果我们转到另一方说对立面地优点:certainly/of course, xxx has its own advantages, such as……..+however,+ 我的观点

  I do not deny that xxx has its own merits such as … but…

  Admittedly…xxx also play an important role in ……..

  接B方案 其他结构及应急措施

  如果不够用(开头用了过多时间例如超过7分钟了)

  我们不用避讳first/for one thing, second/also, third/what is more

  我们先列出三个优点,在最后写出对立方的不足

  例如:of course, xxx give us/ bring us………….说一些对立方的优点(所以后面B方案结尾就不用让步了)。在结尾最终敲定你的观点也不迟。例如But , as xxx, we should / do not /we had better.总之,我们的body末端就像是在画一道九曲十八弯的江水(说得有点夸张),但最终她是要流向大海的。

  3结尾(A方案=让步+结论 B方案=结论)

  接A方案的`结尾,让步同样可以这样:of course, xxx give us…/ xxx, certainly, has its own merits/advantages. 后面 + 一大堆“一句话例子”。最后however, for xxx, xxx, equipped with more merits like ……can be more reasonably treated as a wiser choice./I therefore reinforce my standpoint to choose xxx as my final choice (for the ……to ….)

  接B方案的结尾中只有结论(因为前面body部分已经让步):一定是转折开头but ,as xxx, we had better……记住不一定用什么to sum up/in conclusion……有时候一个转折词更能体现鲜明的逻辑关系,用别的反而模糊了。这样我们的B类的最后两段就分别完成了让步和结论的功能。

  当然,如果你没有时间了,我这里同样有紧急方案,而且效果同样很好。

  这样地结尾只有两个部分:in conclusion/ to sum up/in summery/from what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that…/it is wiser… xxx has more/better(比较级), I hence/therefore reinforce my standpoint to choose xxx as the final choice for…我测了一下时间,应该可以在一分钟之内搞定结尾。(旁白:不就是背么?!)

  二,比较类 (两种事物或一个事物的两种情况比较advantage and disadvantage)

  开头同上,不过可以不写观点:

  (我们加一种经典开头写观点的)since the announcement of xxx to do xxx(university’s plan to develop a new center), many people have showed their concern for the project and expressed their views of xxx. ………… it is clear that the diversified views have converged to two: …… Now that we have to make a decision, I think we should choose the latter without hesitation. / But I prefer……..

  中间:

  as everybody knows, ……………in short,……………..

  there are several reasons.

  first of all

  the second

  the third

  the reasons above may can answer why I prefer to ……..

  结尾

  because of the above reasons, I strongly recommend that we ……

  不写观点的开头( 很普便,提倡!!!):some people like ……while others……often It depends on the……Those who……will choose/like ……They like ……will prefer…….

  然后分类陈述优点

  倒数第二段就要开始驳论,说出你选择的具有更多的优点:some people would say that ……然后根据这个驳论他。就是自己立个靶子打。

  结尾和其他的不一样了,要注意始终两边说,并可以有也可以没有自己的偏向。Both ……and …….. are………and both are……….. I prefer………because………but people will make the choice that fit their lifestyle best.

  大家都知道,比较类和对立类区别不大,所以看看对立类的基本上两种就都能掌握。不过要注意的是,这两种类型的文章

  如果没提点对立面或其他选择(包括让步),是不可能上4分的。 (from redrock)

  三,自定义类(自己的观点imagine…… , why do you think……how can……)

  个人认为自定义类是更自由一些,所以前面的模板自然可以沿用,不过,自由就需要我们准备更多的例子和更利于写作的选择。比如问题问你最希望见的历史人物,最愿意回到过去哪个地方哪个时候,问你家里的哪个空间在你看来最重要……最好把所有的题目都想一遍,如果时间紧,也要把自定义类的好好想想,有备无患。

  第四部分:综合写作满分范文

  一、旅行交通工具

  You need to travel from your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. Tell which method of travel you would choose. Give specific reasons for your choice.

  There are many different types of transportation which I could use to travel 40 miles from my home. The type of transportation I would choose depends mainly on how fast I need to get there and how much money I have. Some possibilities are walking, horseback riding, driving, or using a taxi, bus, or train.

  The most economical choice is walking. It costs nothing, is healthful, but it is time consuming. The average person can walk about 4-5 miles per hour, so this trip would take at least 10 hours to complete. That means I would probably have to spend the night somewhere along the way. If I have to spend money for a hotel, then this choice really isn't free. Plus, I might arrive at the end tired and with sore feet! After walking comes animal transportation. In my area, horses are not common, so it wouldn't be a likely choice. I believe that a 40-mile trip would take 2 or 3 hours on a horse. If I had free access to a horse, the cost would be minimal. Of course, I'd have to know how to ride!

托福综合写作万能模板2016

  With a car, the travel time is minimal (under one hour), with onl the cost of gasoline to consider. However, I don't own a car, and car rentals are expensive. Shared taxis are one form of affordabletransportation, with 4 or 5 people sharing the cost of a car trip to a common destination. The only downside is finding people to share the fare with me. Fortunately, I live in an urban area, where there are buses and 'trains to ride. One of these would be my first choice.

  In short the kind of transportation depends on how fast I need to get to my destination and how much money I have. If I need to get there fast, and money isn't important, I can hire a private taxi.Since I don't own my own car, I don't have that option, and I have never walked 40 miles in one trip. I usually depend on the bus and trains, and would do so in this circumstance. They are cheap, dependable and reliable.

  二、人类对社会的贡献

  When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the question. It is generally agreed that society benefits from the work of its members. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer.

  Artists and scientists both make valuable contributions to our society. It may seem sometimes that artists are more valued. That's because those artists who are famous make a lot of money.However, they are relatively few. The fact is that scientists are more valued. They get more respect from society for the work they do.

  Artists reflect their times and their culture. A painter or a writer shows us in pictures and words what we're like as a people. They record our culture for future generations. Actors and other performers, like singers and dancers, entertain us. They take our minds off our troubles, and remind us how beautiful and exciting our imaginations can be. Artists also help keep their societies mentally and emotionally healthy.

  For example, children that participate in the arts, such as painting or music, in school do better in their other studies. Art of all types is necessary to the human spirit.

  The contributions scientists make to society are more obvious. They include the cars we drive, the computers we use at home and at work, and the appliances that help us cook our meals and clean our houses. All of these come from the ideas and hard work of scientists. Because of scientific discoveries, we're living longer and more healthful lives. Scientists also contribute to the arts. Movies are the result of science. So are television, radio, and the recording of music on CDs.

  Generally, scientists don't make as much money as famous artists like film stars, opera singers or successful painters. However, our society gives them more respect, and they generally make a good living. Scientists are considered to be serious professionals, while artists are sometimes viewed as flaky, irresponsible people. So overall, I'd have to conclude that we value scientists more.

  三、学习亲身体验

  Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by listening to the advice of family and friends. Other people believe that the best way of learning about life is through personal experience. Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about life. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference.

  Both learning through personal experience and learning through the advice of others can help you in life. If you don't have a lot of knowledge about something, the advice of people you trust can be very valuable. They can tell you about their own experiences, and about the advantages and disadvantages of a situation. Then you can consider your own wants and needs and decide what you should do. Pretty soon, you'll have more experience of your own.

  When you 're thinking about what you want to do with your life, friends and relatives are a great resource. They can give you information about things like jobs, school, volunteering, and traveling to other parts of the world. They've done a lot of learning in their lives, and you can use it to decide what you want to do with yours.

  In some cases, there's no real substitute for personal experience. For example, I really don't like to make presentations in class. I know I'll make mistakes, even if I'm thoroughly prepared and know all about my topic. Nothing but experience can help me deal with the nervousness I feel. I know that the feedback I get from the teacher and from the other students will help me learn from those mistakes. At least I'm confident that the next class presentation I make will be much better than the last one.

  In the end, I think that the best way to learn about life is by experiencing it firsthand. No one else can teach you how to get along with other people, how to realistically judge your own abilities, or how to understand who you are. You can only learn these things by dealing with situations every day. Experience is the best teacher.

  四、药品广告(drug advertisement)

  提出命题:药品广告所提供的信息都是客观全面的,且病人对药物了解得越多越好

  1.病人可以更多了解处方药的相关信息(information)

  2.医生开药时,病人可以与广告上进行比较,有利于选药

  3.通过广告,病人可以了解到新药的发展,提醒医生

  挑战命题:病人不需要对药物了解太多,因为有时候了解得太多会对非专业的病人产生困扰,而且广告所提供的信息也不完整全面

  1.广告通常只有宣传好处,对副作用(side effects)一笔带过,病人很难判断

  2.病人对药物的准确用法用量不了解,可能会用错

  3.广告只宣传新药,对旧药没有宣传,但是针对不同的病情,也许旧药更为合适

  高分范文

  The speaker raises serious counterarguments against the reading paragraphs by providing drastically different evidences regarding the effects of the advertisement, the impact of self-selecting medication, and the impact of trends in the pharmaceutical industry.

  Firstly, knowing more information from the ads will not necessarily help the patients make better-informed decisions, as the reading argues. On the contrary, patients, without professional training and knowledge, will be more susceptible to misunderstanding information. For example, they would focus only on the positive sides of a certain medicine while ignoring the serious side effects.

  In addition, if the patients bear the responsibility of prescribing their own medication, they assume more responsibility to their own health. This makes doctors less liable for potential risks and undesirable consequences.

  Lastly, as for the new trends' benefits to the patients, the speaker does not challenge the reading directly. Instead, he argues that the new medicine, which will count for most of the ads may not necessarily be the best medicine, even though the patients can inform their doctors about the new products.

  五、网络问卷(web based survey)

  reading

  网络问卷相对传统问卷的优势

  1.调查范围更广,所以调查结果就更为准确(逻辑错误:参加人多并不代表范围广,也不能保证效果好)

  2.发放,填写和收集问卷更加方便简单

  3.成本低 lecture

  反驳网络问卷的优势

  1.所取得的调查结果不全面(biased),因为不是所有人都会上网,中老年人上网会比较少,而年轻人上网比较多

  2.成本并不会低,因为一个好的网络问卷需要一个团队的大量工作(提出新的证据:网络问卷也需要成本和人力资源)

  3.大多数人对网络问卷都不严肃,会得到不正确的信息,容易混淆视听。

  高分范文:

  The speaker questions the effectiveness of web based surveys by providing evidences contradictory to the reading. Firstly, he identified the reading's logical flaw in assuming that an increase in the scope and quantity of the survey will automatically translate to greater precision of the surveys.

  However, if surveys aim to question people over 60 years old, how can these old people conduct surveys online since this group seldom surf the Internet? The web surveys are effective in reaching mainly the young generation. Thus the results cannot be extended to demonstrate the views of the whole population.

  Secondly, although the web-based surveys will lower paper cost, they will inevitably incur new costs in web designing, flashy features, and other elements, which will require more costly team work. This evidence effectively attacks the reading's argument that web surveys will certainly reduce the cost of the survey.

  In the end, many web designers tend to overdo in the webpage and add fancy and flashy features. As a result, many people perceive the web-based surveys as not serious and are thus not willing to respond to the surveys. Unlike physical surveys that draw attention effectively, many web based surveys are simply ignored or even deleted.

  六、打分偏高(inflation of marks)

  reading

  老师给学生打的分数越来越高

  1.分数打得低会减低学生的学习意志

  2.2.会影响教师自己的测评结果

  3.3.因为别的老师给的成绩高,如果不跟着给高分,学生出去找工作会吃亏

  lecture 解决方案

  1.应从小灌输正确的学习观念,不应因一次小失利而丧失信心

  2.教师的评测可以改在学期结束前进行,这样学生的成绩就不会影响到评测结果

  3.企业在选拔人才时可以看学生在班级中的排名而不是单纯的成绩

  高分范文:

  The speaker challenges the reasoning that supports the current inflation in college grading system, provides very specific alternatives to teacher evaluation timing and employer methodology in judging a student. The speaker firstly argues that the inflated grades will not enable students to truly know their weakness, not to mention improve upon them.

托福综合写作万能模板2016

  According to the reading, low grades will discourage students. The speaker rebuts this point and argues that the true meaning of education is not just to satisfy students. Letting the students make progress is the purpose and inflated grades will not help students in this way.

  As for the reading's concerns that low grades will adversely affect teachers' evaluation, the speaker offers a solution. By finishing the teachers' evaluation before the end of the semester, we can sever the connections between the students' grades and teachers' evaluations.

  Lastly, the speaker argues that the school does not have to follow the trend of inflated grades invariably. The reading argues that if the school does not follow the trend, their students will be discriminated, the lecture says that this problem can be solved by providing a weighted relative score.

  This score will pinpoint a student's percentile in the whole student body and show the other students' scores, thus allowing employers to clearly position the student among the entire student body.

  八、加氟自来水(adding fluoride in public water)

  reading

  在自来水中加氟的好处

  1.防止蛀牙

  2.杀死细菌

  3.对骨骼有好处(decrease bone diseases)

  lecture 反驳

  1.自来水并不会留在口中,对防止蛀牙没有帮助

  2.氟会与输水管(water pipe)中的化学物质反应,产生有毒物质,其危害大于细菌

  3.过量的氟会使骨骼变脆

  高分范文:

  The speaker refutes the reading's argument about the benefits of adding fluoride to pipe water by providing contradictory evidence about pipe water's fluoride's effectiveness in preventing cavities in teeth, killing bacteria, and decreasing bone diseases.

  Firstly, the speaker points out that the short contact of fluoride with teeth will not enable the fluoride to prevent cavities, as the reading argues. Instead, the water will pass the mouth and teeth quickly and go directly to the stomach.

  Another argument raised in the lecture is that fluoride could undergo chemical reactions with heavy metals in the pipe, such as lead. This will create toxic substances which will pose serious health threat. In this way fluoride could be even more deadly than bacteria. Although the fluoride, as the reading says, will kill some bacteria, the cure here is worse than the disease.

  In the end, the speaker maintains that overdose of fluoride will backfire to human bones. Although the reading illustrates that fluoride will improve bone strength, the lecture says overdose will cause serious damage to human bones.

  九、伦勃朗的油画

  The lecture revises the idea presented in the text, that Rembrandt was not the artist who painted the famous painting "Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet”.

  The inconsistency between the white cap, which identifies the woman as a servant, and the expensive fur collar she wears dissolves as the Professor explains that the fur collar was apparently painted over the original painting to increase its worth by displaying an aristocratic woman.

  In addition, the assumption that light and shadow in the painting do not fit together is refuted by the fact that in the original painting, the woman wears a light cloth that illuminated her face. Thus the presentation of light and shadow was indeed very realistic and accurate, as it is characteristic of Rembrandt’s paintings.

  Finally, the mystery of the panel consisting of patches glued together is also solved in the lecture. Actually, the wood panel was later enlarged to make it more grand and valuable, but the original painting was painted on a single panel, as Rembrandt would have done it. Furthermore, the wood is of the same tree used in other Rembrandt paintings, like the "Self-Portrait with a Hat”.

  All the information point out that Rembrandt is the painter of the controversial painting.

  十、关于恐龙是否是恒温动物

  The professor actually contradicts the statements made in the passage. She is of the view that dinosaurs are not endotherms i.e. they were not able to keep their body temperature at a constant rate.

  The professor contradicts the issue of dinosaurs being endothers based on the availability of fossils being available in thwe polar regions, she say that the polar regions in those days were not as cold as they are today i.e at least warm enough for dinosaurs to live. Durin harsh winters she says that there is a possibility of the dinosaurs actually migrating to warmer regions.

  The issue of leg position and movement being used as a reason to clasify the dinosaurs as endotherms does not please the professor either. She says that dinosaurs had legs under their bodies to support their huge bodies i.e the legs under the body of the dinosaur were actually to support the huge weight of the dinosaur and not to provide it with a body structure like endotherms(which is actually suited for running).

  The professor acknowledges the presence of haversian canals but also points out that that the fossils show the presence of growth rings. These rings occur due to the thickening of the bone. The thickening indicates that the dinosaurs were'nt actually growing continuously but were experiencing periods of rapid growth and periods of no growth in succesion.

  This pattern. she says is characteristic of non endothermic aanimals. Thus it can be inferred that the professor challenges the passage by giving reasons as to why she thinks that the dinosaur is not an endotherm.

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